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Location - Geographical areas / Infrastructure

in Assam

in Goa

in Karnataka

in Hampi, Karnataka

in Kerala

in Madhya Pradesh

in Maharashtra

in Manipur

in Meghalaya

in Sikkim

in Tamilnadu

in Uttarakhand

in Uttara Pradesh




* Jul 2021
World Heritage sites in India
1983 Ajanta Caves
1983 Ellora Caves
1983 Agra Fort
1983 Taj Mahal
1984 Sun Temple, Konarak
1984 Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram
1985 Kaziranga National Park
1985 Manas Wildlife Sanctuary
1985 Keoladeo National Park
1986 Churches and Convents of Goa
1986 Khajuraho Group of Monuments
1986 Group of Monuments at Hampi
1986 Fatehpur Sikri
1987 Group of Monuments at Pattadakal
1987 Elephanta Caves
1987 Brihadisvara Temple, Thanjavur
1987 Sundarbans National Park
1988 Nanda Devi National Park
1989 Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi
1993 Humayun's Tomb, Delhi
1993 Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi
1999 Darjeeling Himalayan Railway
2002 Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya
2003 Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka

* Jul 2021
National Institute of Animal Welfare (NIAW)
at Ballabhgarh, Faridabad, Haryana has been established to impart training and education in animal welfare and veterinary science. The institute aims at creating an enabling environment for the fulfillment of statutory requirements under the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960.

* Jul 2021
National Parks
Andaman Nicobar Islands
Wandur National Park - Estuarine Crocodiles, Coconut Crab

Arunachal Pradesh
Namdapha National Park - Leopard, Gaur, Himalayan Black Bear

Kaziranga National Park - Rhinos, Elephants, Tigers
Manas National Park - Assam Roofed Turtle, Golden Langur

Indravati National Park - Tiger, Leopard, Blue Bull,

Gir National Park - Asiatic Lion
Marine National Park

Himachal Pradesh
Great Himalayan National Park
Pin Valley National Park - Himalayan Snowcock, Chukar

Jammu And Kashmir
Dachigam National Park - Himalayan Black Bears, Leopard
Hemis National Park - Snow Leopard
Kishtwar National Park - Himalayan Jungle Crow

Hazaribagh National Park - Tigers, Wild Boar, Nilgai
Palamu National Park - Tigers, Dhole, Elephants

Bandipur National Park - Asian Elephants, Tiger
Bannerghatta National Park - Tiger, Lion
Nagarhole National Park - Elephant, Jackal, Tiger

Eravikulam National Park - Nilgiri Tahr, Atlas Moth, Elephant
Periyar National Park - Nilgiri Langur, Flying Squirrel
Silent Valley National Park - Nilgiri Tahr, Niligiri Langur,Tiger

Madhya Pradesh
Bandhavgarh National Park - Tigers, Leopards, Bears
Kanha National Park - Tigers, Leopards, Elephant
Madhav National Park - Indian Gazelle, Nilgai, Sambar
Panna National Park - Tiger, Wolf, Chital, Sloth Bear
Pench National Park - Tiger, Leopard, Sloth Bear

Navegaon National Park - Tiger, Panther, Bisons
Tadoba National Park - Tiger, Leopards, Sloth Bears

Balphakram National Park - Barking Deer, Golden Cat
Nokrek National Park - Fishing Cat, Serow, Tiger.

Chandaka Elephant Reserve - Elephant, Hital, Bear, Pea-Fowl
Nandan Kanan National Park - White Tiger, Asiatic Lion, Crocodiles
Simlipal National Park - Tiger, Leopard, Elephants

Desert National Park - Great Indian Bustard, Harriers
Keoladeo National Park - Siberian Cranes, Ruddy Shelducks
Ranthambore National Park - Tigers, Leopards, Boars
Sariska National Park - Four-Horned Deer, Carecal, Leopard

Uttar Pradesh
Dudhwa National Park - Tiger, Rhinoceros

Corbett National Park - Tigers, Leopards, Elephants
Govind National Park - Black Bear, Leopard, Snow Cock
Nandadevi National Park - Tiger, Leopard
Rajaji National Park - Tigers, Leopards, Elephants,
Valley of Flowers National Park - Snow Leopard, Musk Deer, Red Fox

West Bengal
Sundarbans National Park - Royal Bengal Tiger; Fishing Cats.
List of National Parks with year of establishment

* Jul 2021
Wildlife Sanctuaries in India
Andhra Pradesh
Srisailam Sanctuary, Manjira Wildlife Sanctuary, Nagarjunasagar Wildlife Sanctuary

Manas Wildlife Sanctuary-a Project Tiger reserve

Sasangir Wildlife Sanctuary, Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary

Sultanpur Bird Sanctuary

Idukki Wildlife Sanctuary, Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary, Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary, Aralam Wildlife Sanctuary, Neyyar Wildlife Sanctuary, Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary, Thattekad Bird Sanctuary, Kumarakom Bird Sanctuary

B R Hills Wildlife Sanctuary, Dandeli Wildlife Sanctuary, Ranganathittu Wildlife Sanctuary

Madhya Pradesh
Karera Wildlife Sanctuary, Panna Wildlife Sanctuary

Sanjay Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary

Chilka Lake Bird Santuary, Bhitarkanika Sanctuary

Sambhar Wildlife Sanctuary

Mudumalai Sanctuary, Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary

Uttar Pradesh
Hastinapur Sanctuary, Kishanpur Sanctuary, National Chambal Sanctuary

Assan Barrage Bird Sanctuary

West Bengal
Satkosia Basipalli Sanctuary
Related topic: National Parks
References: ;

* Jul 2021
International airports in India
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar International Airport - Nagpur, Maharashtra
Biju Patnaik International Airport - Bhubaneswar, Odisha
Chaudhary Charan Singh Airport - Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh
Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport - Mumbai, Maharashtra
Chennai International Airport - Chennai, Tamil Nadu
Cochin International Airport - Nedumbassery, Kerala
Coimbatore International Airport - Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu
Indira Gandhi International Airport - New Delhi
Jaipur International Airport - Jaipur, Rajasthan
Karipur Airport, Calicut International Airport - Kozhikode, Kerala
Kempegowda International Airport - Bengaluru, Karnataka
Lal Bahadur Shastri Airport - Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh
Lokpriya Gopinath Bordoloi International Airport - Guwahati, Assam
Mangalore International Airport (formerly known as Bajpe Airport) - Mangalore, Karnataka
Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport - Kolkata, West Bengal
Rajiv Gandhi International Airport - Hyderabad, Telangana
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel International Airport - Ahmedabad, Gujarat
Sri Guru Ram Dass Jee International Airport - Amritsar, Punjab
Tiruchirapalli International Airport - Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu
Trivandrum International Airport - Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala
Tulihal Airport - Imphal, Manipur
Vasco-da-Gama International Airport - Dabolim, Goa
Veer Savarkar International Airport - Port Blair, Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Visakhapatnam Airport - Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh

* Jul 2021
Jharkhand was a part of Bihar. Jharkhand became a state under the Republic of India on November 15, 2000.

* July 2021
The rivers of India can be classified into four groups viz.,
Himalayan rivers,
Deccan rivers,
Coastal rivers, and
Rivers of the inland drainage basin.

The Himalayan Rivers are formed by melting snow and glaciers and therefore, continuously flow throughout the year. During the monsoon months, Himalayas receive very heavy rainfall and rivers swell, causing frequent floods. The Deccan Rivers on the other hand are rain fed and therefore fluctuate in volume. Many of these are non-perennial. The Coastal streams, especially on the west coast are short in length and have limited catchment's areas. Most of them are non-perennial. The streams of inland drainage basin of western Rajasthan are few. Most of them are of an ephemeral character.

The main Himalayan river systems are those of the Indus and the Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna system.

The Indus, which is one of the great rivers of the world, rises near Mansarovar in Tibet and flows through India, and thereafter through Pakistan, and finally falls in the Arabian Sea near Karachi. Its important tributaries flowing in Indian Territory are the Sutlej (originating in Tibet), the Beas, the Ravi, the Chenab, and the Jhelum.

The Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna is another important system of which the principal sub-basins are those of Bhagirathi and the Alaknanda, which join at Dev Prayag to form the Ganga. It traverses through Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and West Bengal. Below Rajmahal hills, the Bhagirathi, which used to be the main course in the past, takes off, while the Padma continues eastward and enters Bangladesh. The Yamuna, the Ramganga, the Ghaghra, the Gandak, the Kosi, the Mahananda and the Sone are the important tributaries of the Ganga. Rivers Chambal and Betwa are the important sub-tributaries, which join Yamuna before it meets the Ganga. The Padma and the Brahmaputra join inside Bangladesh, and continue to flow as the Padma or Ganga.

The Brahmaputra rises in Tibet, where it is known as Tsangpo and runs a long distance till it crosses over into India in Arunachal Pradesh under the name of Dihang. Near Passighat, the Debang and Lohit join the river Brahmaputra and the combined river runs all along the Assam in a narrow valley. It crosses into Bangladesh downstream of Dhubri.
The principal tributaries of Brahmaputra in India are the Subansiri, Jia Bhareli, Dhansiri, Puthimari, Pagladiya and the Manas. The Brahmaputra in Bangladesh receives the flow of Tista, etc., and finally falls into Ganga. The Barak River, the Head stream of Meghna, rises in the hills in Manipur. The important tributaries of the river are Makku, Trang, Tuivai, Jiri, Sonai, Rukni, Katakhal, Dhaleswari, Langachini, Maduva and Jatinga. Barak continues in Bangladesh till the combined Ganga—Brahmaputra join it near Bhairab Bazar.

In the Deccan region, most of the major river systems flowing generally in east direction fall into Bay of Bengal. The major east flowing rivers are Godavari, Krishna, Cauvery, Mahanadi, etc. Narmada and Tapti are major West flowing rivers.

The Godavari in the southern Peninsula has the second largest river basin covering 10 per cent of the area of India. Next to it is the Krishna basin in the region, while the Mahanadi has the third largest basin. The basin of the Narmada in the uplands of the Deccan, flowing to the Arabian Sea, and of the Kaveri in the south, falling into the Bay of Bengal are about the same size, though with different character and shape.

There are numerous coastal rivers, which are comparatively small. While only handful of such rivers drain into the sea near the delta of east cost, there are as many as 600 such rivers on the west coast.

A few rivers in Rajasthan do not drain into the sea. They drain into salt lakes and get lost in sand with no outlet to sea. Besides these, there are the Desert Rivers which flow for some distance and are lost in the desert. These are Luni and others such as, Machhu, Rupen, Saraswati, Banas and Ghaggar.

* Jul 2021
Indian Ocean
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface. It is bounded by Asia- including India (after which the ocean is named) on the north, on the west by Africa, on the east by Australia, and on the south by the Southern Ocean.

Among the few large rivers flowing into the Indian Ocean are the Zambezi, Shatt al-Arab, Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra, Jubba and Irrawaddy River.

The Indian Ocean is bounded by Iran, Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh to the north; the Malay Peninsula, the Sunda Islands of Indonesia, and Australia to the east; Antarctica to the south; and Africa and the Arabian Peninsula to the west. In the southwest it joins the Atlantic Ocean south of the southern tip of Africa, and to the east and southeast its waters mingle with those of the Pacific.

* Jul 2021
Gold Mines:
There are 3 gold mines working (Hutti and Uti in Karnataka and the Hirabuddini mines in Jharkand). East Singhbhum, Jharkhand has one operational gold mine located in Kendrugocha, which is also of medium quality

Hatti Gold Mines - located near Lingusugur taluk, 20km from Lingusugur, Raichur district, Karnataka
Deccan Gold Mines Limited (DGML) is the first private sector gold exploration company in India to be listed on the Mumbai Stock Exchange. Established as a gold exploration company in 2003, DGML has a large portfolio of exploration prospects in the states of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala and Rajasthan.

Gold is being mined by The Hutti Gold Mines Ltd (HGML), a Government of Karnataka undertaking, near Hutti village in northern Karnataka. The mine is developed on a classic Archaean lode gold deposit, similar to those in Australia, Canada and South Africa. Gold mining activity in the belt has been known since pre-Ashokan time, about 3000 years ago. Modern gold mining commenced in the Hutti area around 1947.

It is owned by the Government of Karnataka and is engaged in the mining as well as production of gold. It is the only company in India which produces gold by mining and processing the gold ore. HGML has two plants which are located at Hutti and Chitradurga. The main mine is located at Hutti in Raichur district, along with the satellite branches of Uti and Hirabuddini. Hutti is an underground mine, Uti is an open-cast mine while Hirabuddini is an exploratory mine. The Chitradurga Gold Unit consists of an exploratory underground mine at G. R. Halli in Chitradurga district as well as an open-cast mine located in Ajjanahalli in Tumkur district. Gold is mined from the main gold mine located at Hutti and other satellite mines. The mines which are owned by Hutti are located in the Hutti-Muski precambrian greenstone geological belt. This area contains both extractable native gold and gold-bearing sulphides.

Kolar gold fields - a town in Bangarpet Taluk, Kolar District, Karnataka (closed down by Bharat Gold Mines Limited, BGML in 2001) considered the world`s second deepest gold mine.
The Kolar Gold Mines of BGML were closed down in the year 2001 as the gold ore reserves got exhausted after 150 years of continuous and heavy extraction. Both the exploration agencies of government viz. the Geological Survey of India (GSI) and the Mineral Exploration Corporation Limited (MECL) declared that mining the meagre remaining reserves was not a technically or economically viable option. At the time of its closure BGML had run up losses of more than Rs. 900 crore. Champion Reefs named after a British officer called Champion was one of the main mining areas in the Kolar Gold Fields.

Diamond Mines:
Panna mines - Panna is a city and a municipality in Panna district in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh - diamond deposits extends North-East on a branch of the Vindhya Range for 150 miles. The most productive mines were in the 1860s and were found in Sakaria, around 20 miles (32 km) from Panna. Four classifications were given to the Panna diamonds: first, Motichul, clear and brilliant; 2nd, Manik, with a faint orange tint; 3rd, Panna, verging in tint towards green; 4th, Bunsput, sepia coloured. Mines is situated in the interior of Panna district, Majhgawan township is situated adjacent to mines.

The Bunder project comprises a cluster of eight lamproites (volcanic rock), located in the Bundelkhand region of Madhya Pradesh, 500 km south east of Delhi. Rio Tinto discovered the Bunder deposit in 2004 as part of a regional exploration reconnaissance programme which commenced in 2002.

Golkonda's mines yielded few diamonds. Actually, Golkonda was the market city of the diamond trade, and gems sold there came from a number of mines. The famous Kohinoor diamond is beleived to be from this mine.

The Kollur Mine in Guntur district of old Golkonda kingdom, situated on the right bank of the river Krishna, was one of the most productive diamond mines in India and the first major diamond center. It operated between the sixteenth and mid-nineteenth centuries. In addition to the Kollur Mine, the Paritala, Gollapally, Mallavally, Ramallakota, and Banganapally were extremely prolific mines in India during this period. The most celebrated Kohinoor diamond was mined in the Kollur mines.
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